Информационный час «Гуляй и веселись честной народ!»

Святки в народе называли святым временем. Этот многодневный праздник делился на две части. С 7 по 14 января, в святые вечера, колядовали и устраивали девичьи гадания, а с 15 по 19 января — тоже веселились на славу, но побаивались страшных вечеров — времени разгула темных сил.

В день рождественского разговения еда была особенно вкусной. Хозяйки готовили поросенка с кашей или кабанью голову с хреном, студень или заливное из поросенка. В народе верили, что во время праздничного ужина в дом приходят души умерших предков, и еду на столе для них оставляли до утра.

В рождественскую ночь обязательно обращались к звездам на ночном небе. Если их было много — ожидался изобильный на грибы и ягоды год. А поутру непременно проводили обряд «обсеивания избы». Произнося слова: «На живущих, на плодущих и на здоровье», три раза бросали горстями овес и пшеницу.«В Рязанской губернии ходили толпами под окна просить пирогов. Впереди всех шла девица, называемая мехоноскою; она-то несла кошель для пирожного сбора; она-то предводила толпу и распоряжалась дележом сбора»

СВЯТКИ И КОЛЯДКИ. КАК ПРАЗДНОВАЛИ СВЯТОЧНЫЕ ДНИ НА РУСИ
СВЯТКИ И КОЛЯДКИ. КАК ПРАЗДНОВАЛИ СВЯТОЧНЫЕ ДНИ НА РУСИ
СВЯТКИ И КОЛЯДКИ. КАК ПРАЗДНОВАЛИ СВЯТОЧНЫЕ ДНИ НА РУСИ

На радость деревенским ребятишкам во всех домах пекли фигурки коровок, бычков, овец, птиц и петухов. Ими украшали стол, окна и дарили колядующим.

Каждая семья ожидала колядовщиков, готовила для них угощение и с искренней радостью слушала колядки:

«Коляда, коляда!
А бывает коляда
Накануне Рождества.
Коляда пришла,
Рождество принесла.
Дай тебе, Господи,
На поле природ,
На гумне примолот,
Квашни гущина,
На столе спорина,
Сметаны ти толсты,
Коровы ти дойны!»

За угощение, благодарили:

«У доброго мужика
Родись рожь хороша:
Колоском густа,
Соломкой пуста!»

В святочные дни плохой приметой считался пустой стол, поэтому на нем неизменно лежал обрядовый калач, которым угощали приходивших колядовать. Радушные хозяева считали: чем больше гостей соберется в их доме, тем куры лучше будут сидеть на яйцах.

После веселого обхода домов молодежь собиралась в посиделочной избе на общую пирушку, где делила и съедала все, чем одарили односельчане. Затем, разодетая в обновки, молодежь плясала под дуду, чтобы избежать неурожая, слушала сказки и гадала о своей судьбе.

Святки и Колядки.
Святки и Колядки.
Святки и Колядки.

О Святках написано много замечательных книг. В них можно ознакомиться с историей праздника, узнать его особенности и открыть для себя много нового. В качестве примера, предлагаем Вашему вниманию книгу:

Шапарова Н.С., Святки — Главный зимний праздник/Наталья Шапарова. — Москва: «АСТ-ПРЕСС», 2014. — 32 стр. ил.

Что такое «колядование», «сочельник» или «Васильев день»? Эти слова мы встречали в классической русской литературе, слышали с экранов телевизоров, но мало кто может доступно объяснить суть этих и других слов, связанных с самым главным зимним праздником России — Святками. В нашей книге мы хотели бы не только интересно рассказать об истории возникновения Святок, но и познакомить современного человека со святочными обрядами и традициями, показать, как они отразились в нашей культуре. Ведь уважение исконных традиций позволяет нам сохранять свою национальную идентичность и противостоять вызовам современности.
.
.Почти две недели между светлыми праздниками Рождества Христова и Крещения Господня пусть всегда будут наполнены радостью, которую принесло миру Его явление.

Период Святок совпадал с православным праздником Рождества Христова. Наши предки считали, что в ночь на Рождество открываются врата в добрую семейную жизнь. Поэтому в эти дни проводили гадания о будущей семейной жизни: о суженом-ряженом, о будущем муже и о предсказаниях на скорое замужество. К замужеству и женитьбе на Руси относились с особой серьезностью и ответственностью, поэтому и гадания отличались большим разнообразием. Самым популярным было гадание с зеркальцем и свечой «Суженый-ряженый, явись ко мне наряженный», а также обряды с воском на воде и с гребнем, положенным на ночь под подушку. Гадания, как и колядки, создавали атмосферу святочного веселья.

Мероприятие подготовил заведующий Библиотекой им. М.Ю. Лермонтова Бальзамов Н.П.

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    От всей души Вам всех благ!

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